Supervisors: A.V. Kabashin, I.R. Nabiyev, V.B. Loshchenov.
The project is implemented on the basis of the International Laboratories of Nano-Bioengineering (I.R. Nabiev) and Bionanophotonics (A.V. Kabashin), as well as the departments “Medical Physics”, “Computer Medical Systems”, “Nuclear Medicine”, “Laser Micro- and nano-technologies ».
The aim of the project: Development of breakthrough methods of diagnostics and therapy (onatology) of oncological diseases on the basis of complex use of unique nanomaterials, new methods of nanobiotechnics and biononophotonics, and advanced nanophotonic, radiofrequency, nuclear-beam, magnetic and other technologies .
Supervisor: V.Yu. Tymoshenko
Fundamental knowledge has been obtained on the laser formation of nanoparticles for biophoton applications and their physical properties and applications have been studied as luminescent labels for the diagnosis of cancer.
It has been established that silicon nanocrystals (Si) with dimensions of 2-5 nm represent promising nanoobjects for biomedical applications. A new laser-plasma method is proposed for the synthesis of ultrapure water-dispersible quantum dots, which are capable of generating bright exciton photoluminescence with a band in the transparency region of biotissues (800 nm). The method is based on laser ablation from a silicon target in residual helium, which leads to the formation of nanostructured silicon films on the substrate. Then nanocrystals of such a film are sonicated in a physi-solution, which leads to the formation of an aqueous solution of colloidal nanoparticles. The uniqueness of the technique is the complete absence of toxic pollutants during the synthesis of nanocrystals. The possibility of obtaining an effective contrast of such nanocrystals in living cells using an exciton photoluminescent band was demonstrated. At that, quantum dots easily penetrated into the cell and were concentrated in the cytoplasm, without causing any toxicity effects.
The possibility of using nonlinear optical properties of relatively large silicon nanoparticles (10-30 nm), namely second harmonic generation and two-photon luminescence, for bioimaging of cancer cells was demonstrated for the first time. In combination with the ability to generate therapeutic effects, such nanocrystals are unique objects for the theranostics of cancer.
A technique for controlling the rate of bioresolution of laser-synthesized silicon (Si) nanoparticles by changing the thickness of the upper oxide layer of SiOx is developed (an article is given in J. Phys., Chem. C). The biodistribution of laser-synthesized silicon particles with an unfunctionalized surface in experiments with animals in vivo with their systemic intravenous injection was first studied. Despite the relatively high dose of nanoparticles (20 mg / ml) administered intravenously in the mouse model, no toxicity effects were observed. It was also found that nanoparticles effectively biodegraded in the body and were completely excreted in the urine a few days after their intravenous administration.
A model of heating solid-state nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions in the field of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation is proposed for use in the hyperthermia of malignant tumors (an article was submitted before the end of the year). It was shown that the heating of the colloidal solution occurs due to the closing of the currents with ions of an aqueous solution concentrating around the nanoparticles when exposed to radio-frequency radiation. The obtained results open the possibility for the development of a new class of sensitizers of radio emission based on biodegradable nanoparticles.
In studies conducted jointly with staff, graduate students and students of the Physics Department of Moscow State University in cooperation with scientists from PHYSBIO, the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics RAS, the VI Lenin Research Institute of Virology. DI. Ivanovo Institute of Immunology, Institute of Immunology of the FMBA and the Institute of Photon Technologies (Germany, Jena), new methods of obtaining biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles based on silicon are developed and new possibilities for their use in luminescent diagnostics (bioimaging) of oncological diseases with subsequent therapy using ultrasound or radiofrequency radiation , as well as to combat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The revealed possibility of combining simultaneous diagnostics and therapy using biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles as active agents lays the foundations of the so-called “teratonic” cancer, which is currently one of the main lines of development of modern medicine. The detected property of silicon nanoparticles to bind to HIV and RSV viruses and to block their infectious ability opens up the prospect of developing new types of antiviral drugs.
Supervisor: I.N. Zavestovskaya
This project is aimed at developing a laser ablation method for the synthesis of luminescent nanoparticles, as well as their use as labels for the biovisualization of cells. The synthesis and study of the luminescent characteristics of silicon, gold, and hybrid silicon-gold nanoparticles will be carried out. A comparative study will also be conducted on the possible use of these nanoparticles as markers for luminescent and nonlinear microscopy (second harmonic generation microscopy). Results will be obtained showing their distributions in cells of various types and data on biodegradation of nanoparticles in vitro.
The purposes of the project are following:
- Development of technologies for obtaining luminescent silicon, gold and hybrid nanoparticles by laser ablation in an inert gas.
- Biological tests of the obtained nanoparticles and determination of their cytotoxicity.
- Investigation of the processes of biodegradation and distribution of nanoparticles in a cell using methods of luminescent and nonlinear optical microscopy.
Despite the fact that luminescent nanoparticles (quantum dots) have found wide application in microelectronics and solar energy, the use of such nanoparticles in medicine is extremely limited. The main problem determining the unsuitability of most well-studied quantum dots in medicine is the toxicity of the nanoparticles themselves or the products of their dissolution. For use in medicine, quantum dots based on physiologically insoluble materials (biocompatible particles) or nanoparticles that dissolve non-toxic products (biodegradable particles) are most promising. In this paper we will compare the possibilities of using particles of two types on the example of gold and silicon nanoparticles. The project is aimed at optimizing the synthesis methods for the production of nanoparticles applicable for use as contrast agents for luminescent and nonlinear optical microscopy.